Anaplasmosis leading to neurological symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia
Anaplasmosis, formerly called human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a co-infection from a tick that typically causes acute disease. In their article, "Trigeminal Neuralgia As the Principal Manifestation of Anaplasmosis: A Case Report," LeDonne and colleagues described human granulocytic anaplasmosis in an 80-year-old woman with neurological symptoms. 
According to the authors, the woman experienced a “sudden onset of severe, lancinating headache in the distribution of the ﬁfth cranial nerve bilaterally.”¹ She had been treated for Lyme disease two months earlier following a tick bite and a rash on her torso. She had since been bitten by a non-engorged tick.
Her neurologic exam was felt to be consistent with a diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a type of chronic pain that affects your face. It causes extreme, sudden burning or shock-like pain. It usually affects one side of the face.²
The patient’s mother had a history of trigeminal neuralgia. The doctors did not see any evidence of Lyme disease.
“However, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis can both develop over a shorter timeframe and without a noticeable rash, making these infections a more likely explanation of the patient’s signs and symptoms,” wrote the authors.
They added, “To conﬁrm the suspected diagnosis, a tick-borne disease panel was ordered and was positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA by PCR.”
“Although severe headache is a common presenting symptom in patients with anaplasmosis, prior studies have not linked anaplasmosis and trigeminal neuralgia,” the authors explained.
“Our case suggests that anaplasmosis was the cause of our patient’s new-onset trigeminal neuralgia.”
The woman was treated with a 3-week course of doxycycline for Anaplasmosis and was prescribed gabapentin 300 for her trigeminal neuralgia.
She had marked improvement in her headaches. Her leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and abnormal hepatic enzymes returned to normal.
In their article, the authors reviewed the literature on Anaplasmosis, pointing out that the symptoms of Anaplasmosis are non-speciﬁc and may include fever, myalgia, and headache but no rash. In addition, patients may present with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated transaminases, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase.
“Rare cases of Anaplasmosis showcase post-infectious complications such as demyelinating polyneuropathy and brachial plexopathy,” wrote the authors. “However, this patient’s presentation of anaplasmosis with new onset trigeminal neuralgia appears to be unique and rare.”
The authors urge clinicians to consider Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and Ehrlichia in “a patient presenting to the hospital with non-speciﬁc symptoms of fever, myalgia, and headache in tick endemic areas.”
Anaplasmosis in the brain
A woman with Anaplasmosis and Babesia infection
Podcast: Lyme disease, Babesia and Anaplasmosis from a tick bite
- LeDonne MJ, Ahmed SA, Keeney SM, Nadworny H. Trigeminal Neuralgia As the Principal Manifestation of Anaplasmosis: A Case Report. Cureus. Jan 2022;14(1):e21668. doi:10.7759/cureus.21668
I was back in the 80s and pin down with a fever for four days of 103 to 104. The doctor because they didn’t know how to treat it gave me six days amoxicillin 30 days later it returned. Now that I’m in my 60s I am in system isn’t what it used to be and the disease has jumped the brain barrier. I believe it’s traveling to my nervous system and Causing me to have peripheral neuropathy. I pray that one day they have a cure for this dreadful disease.
I advise my patients to try another antibiotic if amoxicillin fails. Amoxicillin is not effective for some patients. And then there is always the possibility of reinfection with a new tick borne illness.
I don’t believe this is all that rare.
I know several this past year that had these symptoms.
One was given minocycline finally after the 3rd bout that left them also semidisabled. It started with this extreme headache but on the outside of the brain as she described it.
The minocycline cleared the symptoms.
After getting Anaplasmosis I have Neuropathy in feet and legs. I also had Babesia from another tick bite. No Trigeminal Neuralgia to date.
Thanks for sharing.
With the inaccuracies of so many “lyme” tests, it might be even better if clinicians would offer a trial of antibiotics for at least 3 weeks to see if there is improvement rather than rely on lab results.
Moreover, 7th nerve palsy from Lyme disease occurs quite early in the infection before the the tests are positive.